Ecological Monitoring

Ecological monitoring has been continuous at Kau Sai Chau since before commencement of golf operations. The results of the ecological monitoring between 1994 and the present date confirmed that the golf courses and their surroundings support for greater biodiversity than the previous land use with increased number and abundance of flora and fauna.
Bird Monitoring

Bird Monitoring

Birds are useful indicators of habitat quality and bird surveys have been conducted at Kau Sai Chau since 1994 to quantify species presence and bird abundance. Survey results have enabled a comparison of bird communities before and after golf construction:
Survey Results
Now
164
species recorded (30% of HK recorded species)
1994
20
species recorded (pre-golf)
This indicates that habitat conditions continue to improve at Kau Sai Chau due to protections from hill fire and maturation of trees and shrubs in previously fire damaged habitats.
Butterfly Monitoring

Butterfly Monitoring

Butterflies are often considered to be useful bio-indicators of upland habitat quality. Since caterpillars are specific in their selection of food plants, diversity of butterflies is related to species richness of plants. Butterfly surveys have been conducted at Kau Sai Chau since 1994.
Survey Results
Now
73
species recorded (27.7% of HK recorded species)
1994
4
species recorded (pre-golf)
The continued increase in butterfly species on the golf courses observed since 1994 shows that the habitat quality is continuously improving.
Mammals Monitoring

Mammals Monitoring

Mammals at Kai Sai Chau have been continuously monitored at Kau Sai Chau since 1994 with the cumulative number of species recorded standing at 12 including Leopard Cats, Small and Masked Palm Civets, Red Muntjac (Barking Deer) and Chinese Porcupine to name a few.
Survey Results
Now
12
species recorded
1994
4
species recorded (pre-golf)
Amphibians and Reptiles Monitoring

Amphibians and Reptiles Monitoring

The increased area of freshwater ponds on Kai Sai Chau has greatly increased the area of suitable habitat for frogs and toads on the golf courses. The result has been an increase in species numbers and population numbers for most species. Reptile number and species have also increased, probably in part due to the increase in available amphibian prey.
Survey Results
Now
44
species recorded (34.4% of HK recorded species)
1994
8
species recorded (pre-golf)
Frogs are particularly useful bio-indicators of freshwater habitats and the increase in species and abundance demonstrate excellent water quality management at Kai Sai Chau.
Dragonfly Monitoring

Dragonfly Monitoring

Dragonflies are also considered to be useful bio-indicators of the quality of freshwater habitats: areas that support breeding populations of some dragonflies are typically high quality habitats, and the presence of dragonfly nymphs is dependent upon good water quality.
Survey Results
Now
43
species recorded (36% of HK recorded species)
1994
8
species recorded (pre-golf)